INTRODUCTION TO THE ORGANIZED COMMUNITY:

THOUGHT AND ACTION
In 1969, Mexican philosopher Leopoldo Zea, in his book Latin American philosophy as mere philosophy [La filosofía americana como filosofía sin más], quoting Simón Rodriguez, who was an educator and Simón Bolivar’s mentor, argues that, “Latin America must imitate neither... Europe, which is characterized by political ignorance, corrupt customs and defectiveness as a whole; nor the United States of America, whose circumstances are totally different…”[1]. According to this author, philosophy in Latin America is original because it is an expression of man, as a result of his origin, concrete personality and individuality. Man has an original character not because new systems are created, but because he “tries to give an answer to the problems arising from a specific reality and at a specific time”[2]. Juan Bautista Alberdi, who drafted the first Argentine Constitution in 1853, held that, “Our philosophy has to be the result of our own needs. Then, in accordance with these needs, what are the problems that the American continent is expected to establish and solve nowadays? Those of freedom, of social rights that man can enjoy in the highest position of the social and political order; those of the public organization most suited to the demands of the perfectible nature of man, on Latin American soil[3].

“Then, a universal philosophy does not exist, because there is no universal solution to the issues that inherently constitute it. Every country, every time, every philosopher had its particular philosophy, which has been more or less successful or has more or less lasted, because every country, every time, and every school of thought has provided different solutions to the problems of the human spirit. The philosophy of all times and of every country has often been the most dominant and most general reason, principle or feeling that has governed the acts of its life and conduct. And that reason has arisen from the most compelling needs of each period and each country”[4].
Twenty years before Leopoldo Zea’s publication, the First National Congress of Philosophy was held at the National University of Cuyo in Argentina. In this Congress, Juan Domingo Perón expressed his thinking in his work entitled “The organized community [La comunidad organizada][5].
His original thinking refers to his particular approach to solve the problems of man in the Argentine society. As noted above, we believe that every philosophy stems from the most crucial needs of each time and each country, and in that sense, Perón did what Alberdi would propose by studying “the philosophy applied to our most immediate objects of interest (…), that is, political philosophy, the philosophy of our industry and wealth, the philosophy of our literature, of our religion, of our history”[6].
We believe that it is compelling to study and reflect on Perón’s proposal to solve the problems of man in the Argentine society, as it is valid and still remains relevant today. It should not be taken as a posthumous tribute to him, but as a concrete proposal of the philosophy of practice, or of the philosophy of action, under which thought is an inseparable part of action.
Moreover, Mexican thinker José Vasconcelos believes that the Latin American philosopher does not waste his time worrying about posing the problem but is determined to commit himself to identify the issue and provide solutions. Posing the problem is just the first approach of the philosopher; if the philosopher is not involved in going any further, by bravely assuming the responsibility of making decisions and showing possible ways to be taken, such approach will be a barren effort”[7].
That is the reason why it is necessary to study the unity of thought and action in the proposal put forward in 1949 in “The organized community,” under Perón’s presidency, which reflects the political will and the commitment of the people regarding their political and social organization, by facing the problems posed by our own reality, moving from theory to action.
The project of  “The organized community” and the so-called  Third Position enshrined in the National Constitution is authentic philosophy, and not because it emerged at sunset with Minerva’s owl, as thought by Hegel, or because it had ratified and enthroned accomplished facts, but because it was able to trigger and promote them to overcome underdevelopment through social, political and economic transformations.
Thus, it constitutes this “new philosophical attitude that is much more worried by action than by theory. A philosophy that shows the possibilities of this action and of its no less possible efficacy,” as suggested by Zea[8]. And this philosophy of action has had the function of “not only raising awareness of our subordination status, but of finding ways to overcome such condition”[9].
The Latin American philosophical attitude seems to be characterized by being a prologue and not an epilogue or epigraph, for being an introduction and not a conclusion of history. It seems to be the need and will of making history and not of telling it, as our short history in the western culture should be self-created rather than self-reproduced, or rather than emulating or plagiarizing those thoughts that emerge from other realities and other needs at different historical times.
After the Latin American revolutions of national liberation and the declarations of Independence, a new Nation had to be created, a new State that had been imagined by the first creoles that inhabited the region. Moreover, during these Independence movements, the action preceded the theories of the State, the Constitutions and the implementation of the values therein expressed. Everything had yet to be done in our land with the native inhabitants, the immigrants and the first creoles. 
The situation was thus posed in 1985 when Simón Bolívar stated in the “The Jamaican Letter” that, “We are neither Indians nor Europeans, but rather an intermediate species between the country’s legitimate owners and the usurping Spaniards: in short, we, being Latin American by birth and with rights equal to those of Europe, have to dispute these rights with the natives of this country and to defend ourselves against the invaders; thus, we find ourselves in the most extraordinary and complicated predicament; nevertheless, it is a kind of guessing game to predict the result of the political course that Latin America will pursue; I shall venture some conjectures, which, of course, I deem to be arbitrary because they respond to my enthusiastic desire rather than to reason”[10].
The original philosophy also arises as a need, and its mission will always include the pressing need to question its own reality. It must assume the commitment to enquire itself as a society and to propose solutions to its problems. It should also transform itself into action to overcome obstacles that hinder our own national and human fulfillment.
 Alberdi, in 1842, argued that, “Because of his social position or capacity, every man of good will has the duty to influence the affairs of his country and get involved in them; and it is also the duty of those involved in the country affairs to enlighten themselves as to the direction in which their efforts should be oriented. However, this cannot be achieved except by the means that we have previously mentioned, that is, by finding out where the country is and where it is heading for, and in order to discover it, by examining where the world is going and what the country can do towards the fate of mankind”[11].
It would seem that the authentic Latin American thinkers and rulers have endeavored to decipher what we can call the “national logarithm,” that is, to discover how to reach the power by knowing the foundations of our countries, their reality. And the power proposed by Perón is, in this case, the harmony that would facilitate the plenitude of existence, understanding that in “the Hegelian principle of realization of the self in us, we point out the need of fulfilling and perfecting that us by the self[12].
The power is the harmony between the material progress and the spiritual values, and provides man with an adjusted vision of reality. It is what in Latin America is now called the Common House for Good Living.
At the same Congress of Philosophy, Mexican thinker José Vasconcelos argued that, “Truth is harmony of thought and reality”[13] and that “fortunately, among our peoples, the philosopher was, at least in the heroic stage of our national formation, a hero of the idea, a creator of culture” (...) each new philosophical doctrine became the soul of a new crusade of immediate social application”[14].
According to Perón, the Argentine national movement, which he called “justicialism,” has a national doctrine that embodies the great theoretical principles. In addition, the model of society that Perón proposes in The organized community, which he calls “collectivism,” has an individualistic root, assumes a deep faith in man and pursues a community in which freedom and responsibility are cause and effect.
As early as 1915, José Ingenieros said, “No Argentine thinker had eyes on his back or uttered the word 'yesterday' either; they all looked straight ahead and relentlessly repeated the word 'tomorrow'. Which other race has such a favorable tradition for prospering?


[1]Zea, Leopoldo: La filosofía americana como filosofía sin más, Siglo XXI, México, 1975.
[2] Ibídem.
[3] Alberdi, Juan Bautista: Ideas para un curso de filosofía contemporánea, en Zea, Leopoldo: Fuentes de la cultura latinoamericana, Tierra Firme, FCE, México, 1995.
[4] Ibídem.
[5] Perón, Juan Domingo: La Comunidad Organizada, Instituto Nacional “Juan Domingo Perón”, Bs.As., 2006.
[6] Zea, Leopoldo: Alberdi, Juan Bautista: Ideas para un curso de filosofía contemporánea en Zea, Leopoldo (compilador): Fuentes de la cultura latinoamericana, Tierra Firme, FCE, México, 1995.
[7] Vasconcelos, José: La filosofía como vocación y servicio, en Actas del Primer Congreso Nacional de Filosofía, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Bs.As, 1950.
[8] Zea, Leopoldo: Op.cit.
[9] Ibidem.
[10] Bolívar, Simón: Carta de Jamaica en Zea, Leopoldo (comp.): Fuentes de la cultura latinoamericana, Tierra Firme, FCE, México, 1995.
[11]Zea, Leopoldo: Op.cit.
[12] Perón, Juan Domingo: Op.cit.
[13]Vasconcelos, José: La filosofía de la coordinación, en Actas del primer congreso nacional de filosofía, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Bs.As, 1950.
[14] Vasconcelos, José: La filosofía como vocación y servicio, en Actas del primer congreso Nacional de Filosofía, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Bs.As, 1950.
THE PHILOSOPHY OF ACTION
LATIN AMERICAN PHILOSOPHY: HOW TO PLAN AND BUILD A NATION?
THOUGHT AND ACTION IN THE 21st CENTURY
PANLOGISM OR HISTORICISM TO EDUCATE
REFERENCES